Now a lot of private investigators considered the father of the literary hero Sherlock Holmes, but it is not. After all, the real father and a parent activity is private detective Allan Pinkerton - American detective and spy.
Born on this famous man in Scotland, the son of a police officer. Upon receipt of the form it was cooper, but he always felt that it was not his calling. When Alan got older, I began to strongly carried away Chartist movement (movement of workers in the UK) and began an active campaign. Of course, then the British authorities did not like it a lot, and the sword of Damocles over Pinkerton in danger of landing in jail.
In order to avoid that the future father of detectives running with his wife in Canada. But to Canada, alas, they are, sailed as the ship crashed, but Alan and his wife were lucky and saved. Young family walking in the USA picked up the boat. After hearing stories about how, in the USA you can get rich quick, he decides to settle in Chicago. However, things are not going the way he wanted. The family barely enough money to miserable existence. In the end, Alan and his wife are leaving Chicago and settle in a small town called Dundee, where he Alan returns to his old profession, opening the cooperage shop. Where his affairs are beginning to slowly climb up the hill, he works honestly and efficiently execute orders.
One day some unscrupulous buyers paid him counterfeit money, it found itself in a couple of days Pinkerton. A little later he found these people, detained them and took them to the local sheriff. The sheriff was so impressed that he offered to work with the police Pinkerton as a detective. Pinkerton, without hesitation agreed - because the reward for villains caught was significantly higher than the income from Bondarsky shops. As a result, Pinkerton, after some months of time already returned to Chicago as a police officer. But there he served for a short time. The constant obstruction from colleagues that envied the success of Pinkerton, welled up his thinking about opening his own private practice. What he soon engaged.
The first years in his own detective business was not very happy, but slowly agency founded by Alan becomes popular. In the mid-19th century he founded the North-Western Police Agency, which initially worked to investigate petty thefts. Later it became known as The Pinkerton National Detective Agency. It should be said that in those years in the USA is still no single police service. Because of this, the villain was enough to go out of state to avoid punishment. Pinkerton opened its representative agencies all over the USA. This allowed him to disclose major case such as a case of theft in the railway company Adams Express. It was stolen $ 700,000 (more than 10 million. Dollars at the current exchange rate). With an extensive network of agents, Alan quickly found the organizers of the crime.
But the main success and triumph of the agency Pinkerton was to prevent the assassination attempt on Lincoln in 1861 on the way to the inauguration in Washington. After that saved Pinkerton appointed chief of his personal guard. But the debate about whether it is a planned assassination attempt or it was coined Pinkerton to ingratiate himself to Lincoln, go so far. But be that as it may be, Pinkerton was soon relieved of his duties of the chief of (apparently the president confided to rumors), and a few years of the Lincoln was shot in a theater.
The civil war forced detectives agency to replace your profile on intelligence activities. They led her into the camp of the Confederates. In addition, the detective agency charged themselves and counter-intelligence work. But intelligence activities did not fit the agency, and it is often given to them by the problem have failed, which is not surprising, because they were not trained spies. After the war, Alan returns to the civilian market orders.
Pinkerton also introduced a lot of innovations in the field of search and arrest of criminals, such as the identikit, file cabinet and a detailed description. This greatly facilitated the work of the detectives of his agency, and soon was accepted for service in the USA police. A poster with pictures and inscriptions villains WANTED, and most importantly - with the amount of remuneration for the capture of the offender on this poster has added greatly trouble in the life of the criminal elements in the country.
Slogan agency staff - «We never sleep». Indeed, Pinkerton detectives were ready to help at any time of day or night. Alan Agency at the time it was the only company in the US, which network covers the whole country and had a huge workforce, and it all started with 11 people. Pinkerton was the first to use women as detectives. In addition, Alan was the first to use the introduction of the gang as a method for its detection and elimination.
Since the "kicks" were working in the tough times of the Wild West, and work methods are appropriate. These guys are constantly tripped head under gangster bullets, risking their lives and were typical ganfayterami.
In addition to the private detective, Pinkerton men were engaged in the suppression of workers' strikes and riots. The most famous incident is considered Homstedsky when fighters Alan suppressed rebellion at the plant of one of the then American rich.
He died this famous people in 1884. He died rather strange death from blood poisoning as a result of the fact that a walk he fell and struck bitten his tongue. After the death of Alan's two generations of the agency was in the hands of his sons and grandsons, but in the 60s of the 20th century the owner died without heirs, and since then the agency owned by different people, but the old name was. Now a majority stake owned by the Swedish Agency ocher concern.
In modern times, the Pinkerton Agency - a brand known worldwide. The head office is based in California and its subsidiaries can be found around the globe. Here it is, a brief history of the famous man who can rightly be considered the father of all modern detectives. Thanks to him and the detectives were all formed as a separate profession. With this article we open a small series of articles about the most famous detectives in history. The next article will be about Eugène Vidocq - detective, head of the French criminal and national security.